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SECOND STATE OF THE CARBON CYCLE REPORT

CREDITS

  • Nancy Cavallaro*, Co-chair, Carbon Cycle Interagency Working Group; SOCCR2 Administrative Agency Lead
    USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture
  • Zhiliang Zhu*, Co-Chair, Carbon Cycle Interagency Working Group
    U.S. Geological Survey
  • Gyami Shrestha*, Ex officio as Lead SOCCR2 Development Advisor and Manager
    U.S. Carbon Cycle Science Program Office Director; Carbon Cycle Interagency Working Group; UCAR Cooperative Programs for the Advancement of Earth System Science
  • Daniel Stover*
    DOE Office of Science
  • Marlen Eve*
    USDA Agricultural Research Service
  • Noel P. Gurwick*
    U.S. Agency for International Development
  • Kathy Hibbard*
    NASA Earth Science Division
  • Erica H. Ombres*
    NOAA Ocean Acidification Program
  • Tom Wirth*
    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
  • James H. Butler**
    NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory
  • Elisabeth Larson**
    North American Carbon Program; NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Science Systems and Applications Inc.
  • Laura Lorenzoni**
    NASA Earth Science Division
  • Anne Marsh**
    USDA Forest Service
  • Kathy Tedesco**
    NOAA Ocean Observing and Monitoring Division; UCAR Cooperative Programs for the Advancement of Earth System Science
  • Paula Bontempi
    NASA Earth Science Division
  • John Schade*
    National Science Foundation
  • Chris Clark
    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
  • Dwight Gledhill
    NOAA Ocean Acidification Program
  • Brad Reed
    U.S. Geological Survey
  • Libby Jewett
    NOAA Ocean Acidification Program
  • Randi Johnson
    USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture
  • Monika Kopacz
    NOAA Atmospheric Chemistry, Carbon Cycle and Climate; UCAR Cooperative Programs for the Advancement of Earth System Science
  • Hank Margolis
    NASA Earth Science Division
  • Kenneth Mooney
    NOAA Atmospheric Chemistry, Carbon Cycle and Climate
  • Toral Patel-Weynand
    USDA Forest Service
  • Luis Tupas
    USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture
  • James Whetstone
    National Institute of Standards and Technology
*Federal Steering Committee member, ** Federal Liaison
See Acknowledgments for former members
  • Virginia Burkett
    Acting Chair, U.S. Department of the Interior
  • Gerald Geernaert
    Vice Chair, U.S. Department of Energy
  • Michael Kuperberg
    Executive Director, U.S. Global Change Research Program
  • John Balbus
    U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
  • Pierre Comizzoli
    Smithsonian Institution
  • Noel P. Gurwick
    U.S. Agency for International Development
  • Wayne Higgins
    U.S. Department of Commerce, NOAA
  • Scott Harper
    U.S. Department of Defense (Acting)
  • William Hohenstein
    U.S. Department of Agriculture
  • Jack Kaye
    National Aeronautics and Space Administration
  • Dorothy Koch
    U.S. Department of Energy
  • Andrew Miller
    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
  • James Reilly
    U.S. Department of the Interior
  • Gerald Solomon
    U.S. Department of Transportation (Acting)
  • Trigg Talley
    U.S. Department of State
  • Maria Uhle
    National Science Foundation
  • Chloe Kontos
    Executive Director, National Science and Technology Council
  • Kimberly Miller
    Office of Management and Budget

    Highlights

    Lead Authors
  • Gyami Shrestha, U.S. Carbon Cycle Science Program and University Corporation for Atmospheric Research
  • Nancy Cavallaro, USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture
  • Laura Lorenzoni, NASA Earth Science Division
  • Abigail Seadler, NASA Earth Science Division
  • Zhiliang Zhu, U.S. Geological Survey
  • Noel P. Gurwick, U.S. Agency for International Development
  • Elisabeth Larson, North American Carbon Program and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Science Systems and Applications Inc.
  • Richard Birdsey, Woods Hole Research Center
  • Melanie A. Mayes, Oak Ridge National Laboratory
  • Raymond G. Najjar, The Pennsylvania State University
  • Sasha C. Reed, U.S. Geological Survey
  • Paty Romero-Lankao, National Center for Atmospheric Research (currently at National Renewable Energy Laboratory)
  • Preface

    Lead Authors
  • Gyami Shrestha, U.S. Carbon Cycle Science Program and University Corporation for Atmospheric Research
  • Nancy Cavallaro, USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture
  • Richard Birdsey, Woods Hole Research Center
  • Melanie A. Mayes, Oak Ridge National Laboratory
  • Raymond G. Najjar, The Pennsylvania State University
  • Sasha C. Reed, U.S. Geological Survey
  • Paty Romero-Lankao, National Center for Atmospheric Research (currently at National Renewable Energy Laboratory)
  • Noel P. Gurwick, U.S. Agency for International Development
  • Peter J. Marcotullio, Hunter College, City University of New York
  • John Field, Colorado State University
  • Review Editor
  • Rachel Melnick, USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture
  • Chapter 1: Overview of the Global Carbon Cycle

    Lead Authors
  • Lori Bruhwiler, NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory
  • Anna M. Michalak, Carnegie Institution for Science and Stanford University
  • Contributing Authors
  • Richard Birdsey, Woods Hole Research Center
  • Joshua B. Fisher, NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory and California Institute of Technology
  • Richard A. Houghton, Woods Hole Research Center
  • Deborah N. Huntzinger, Northern Arizona University
  • John B. Miller, NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory
  • Science Lead
  • Richard Birdsey, Woods Hole Research Center
  • Review Editor
  • Gil Bohrer, Ohio State University
  • Federal Liaison
  • James H. Butler, NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory
  • Chapter 2: The North American Carbon Budget

    Lead Authors
  • Daniel J. Hayes, University of Maine
  • Rodrigo Vargas, University of Delaware
  • Contributing Authors
  • Simone R. Alin, NOAA Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory
  • Richard T. Conant, Colorado State University
  • Lucy R. Hutyra, Boston University
  • Andrew R. Jacobson, University of Colorado, Boulder, and NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory
  • Werner A. Kurz, Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service
  • Shuguang Liu, Central South University of Forestry and Technology
  • A. David McGuire, U.S. Geological Survey and University of Alaska, Fairbanks
  • Benjamin Poulter, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center
  • Christopher W. Woodall, USDA Forest Service
  • Science Lead
  • Melanie A. Mayes, Oak Ridge National Laboratory
  • Review Editor
  • Tara Hudiburg, University of Idaho
  • Federal Liaison
  • Noel P. Gurwick, U.S. Agency for International Development
  • Chapter 3: Energy Systems

    Lead Author
  • Peter J. Marcotullio, Hunter College, City University of New York
  • Contributing Authors
  • Lori Bruhwiler, NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory
  • Steven Davis, University of California, Irvine
  • Jill Engel-Cox, National Renewable Energy Laboratory
  • John Field, Colorado State University
  • Conor Gately, Boston University
  • Kevin Robert Gurney, Northern Arizona University
  • Daniel M. Kammen, University of California, Berkeley
  • Emily McGlynn, University of California, Davis
  • James McMahon, Better Climate Research and Policy Analysis
  • William R. Morrow, III, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
  • Ilissa B. Ocko, Environmental Defense Fund
  • Ralph Torrie, Canadian Energy Systems Analysis and Research Initiative
  • Expert Reviewer
  • Sam Baldwin, DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy
  • Science Lead
  • Paty Romero-Lankao, National Center for Atmospheric Research (currently at National Renewable Energy Laboratory)
  • Review Editor
  • Emily J. Pindilli, U.S. Geological Survey
  • Federal Liaison
  • Nancy Cavallaro, USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture
  • Chapter 4: Understanding Urban Carbon Fluxes

    Lead Authors
  • Kevin Robert Gurney, Northern Arizona University
  • Paty Romero-Lankao, National Center for Atmospheric Research (currently at National Renewable Energy Laboratory)
  • Stephanie Pincetl, University of California, Los Angeles
  • Contributing Authors
  • Michele Betsill, Colorado State University
  • Mikhail Chester, Arizona State University
  • Felix Creutzig, Mercator Research Institute on Global Commons and Climate Change
  • Kenneth Davis, The Pennsylvania State University
  • Riley Duren, NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory
  • Guido Franco, California Climate Change Research Center
  • Sara Hughes, University of Toronto
  • Lucy R. Hutyra, Boston University
  • Chris Kennedy, University of Victoria
  • Rob Krueger, Worcester Polytechnic Institute
  • Peter J. Marcotullio, Hunter College, City University of New York
  • Diane Pataki, University of Utah
  • David Sailor, Arizona State University
  • Karina V. R. Schäfer, Rutgers University
  • Science Lead
  • Paty Romero-Lankao, National Center for Atmospheric Research (currently at National Renewable Energy Laboratory)
  • Review Editor
  • Nathaniel A. Brunsell, University of Kansas
  • Federal Liaisons
  • Elisabeth Larson, North American Carbon Program and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Science Systems and Applications, Inc.
  • Karina V. R. Schäfer (former), National Science Foundation
  • Chapter 5: Agriculture

    Lead Authors
  • Alexander N. Hristov, The Pennsylvania State University
  • Jane M. E. Johnson, USDA Agricultural Research Service
  • Contributing Authors
  • Charles W. Rice, Kansas State University
  • Molly E. Brown, University of Maryland
  • Richard T. Conant, Colorado State University
  • Stephen J. Del Grosso, USDA Agricultural Research Service
  • Noel P. Gurwick, U.S. Agency for International Development
  • C. Alan Rotz, USDA Agricultural Research Service
  • Upendra M. Sainju, USDA Agricultural Research Service
  • R. Howard Skinner, USDA Agricultural Research Service
  • Tristram O. West, DOE Office of Science
  • Benjamin R. K. Runkle, University of Arkansas
  • Henry Janzen, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada
  • Sasha C. Reed, U.S. Geological Survey
  • Nancy Cavallaro, USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture
  • Gyami Shrestha, U.S. Carbon Cycle Science Program and University Corporation for Atmospheric Research
  • Science Lead
  • Sasha C. Reed, U.S. Geological Survey
  • Review Editor
  • Rachel Melnick, USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture
  • Federal Liaisons
  • Nancy Cavallaro, USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture
  • Carolyn Olson (former), USDA Office of the Chief Economist
  • Chapter 6: Social Science Perspectives on Carbon

    Lead Author
  • Elizabeth L. Malone, Independent Researcher
  • Contributing Authors
  • Michele Betsill, Colorado State University
  • Sara Hughes, University of Toronto
  • Rene Kemp, Maastricht University
  • Loren Lutzenhiser, Portland State University
  • Mithra Moezzi, Portland State University
  • Benjamin L. Preston, RAND Corporation
  • Tristram O. West, DOE Office of Science
  • Expert Reviewers
  • John Robinson, University of Toronto
  • Sarah Burch, Waterloo University
  • Hal Wilhite, University of Oslo
  • Nicole Woolsey Biggart, University of California, Davis
  • Benjamin Sovacool, University of Sussex and Aarhaus University
  • Science Lead
  • Paty Romero-Lankao, National Center for Atmospheric Research (currently at National Renewable Energy Laboratory)
  • Review Editor
  • Christine Negra, Versant Vision
  • Federal Liaison
  • Elisabeth Larson, North American Carbon Program; NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Science Systems and Applications Inc.
  • Chapter 7: Tribal Lands

    Lead Author
  • Maureen I. McCarthy, University of Nevada, Reno, and Desert Research Institute
  • Contributing Authors
  • Beverly Ramsey, Desert Research Institute and Wa-Hi-La, LLC
  • John Phillips, First Americans Land-Grant Consortium
  • Margaret H. Redsteer, University of Washington
  • Science Lead
  • Sasha C. Reed, U.S. Geological Survey
  • Review Editor
  • Rachel Melnick, USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture
  • Federal Liaisons
  • Nancy Cavallaro, USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture
  • Gyami Shrestha, U.S. Carbon Cycle Science Program and University Corporation for Atmospheric Research
  • Chapter 8: Observations of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Methane

    Lead Authors
  • Andrew R. Jacobson, University of Colorado, Boulder, and NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory
  • John B. Miller, NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory
  • Contributing Authors
  • Ashley Ballantyne, University of Montana
  • Sourish Basu, University of Colorado, Boulder, and NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory
  • Lori Bruhwiler, NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory
  • Abhishek Chatterjee, Universities Space Research Association and NASA Global Modeling and Assimilation Office
  • Scott Denning, Colorado State University
  • Lesley Ott, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center
  • Science Lead
  • Richard Birdsey, Woods Hole Research Center
  • Review Editor
  • Nathaniel A. Brunsell, University of Kansas
  • Federal Liaison
  • James H. Butler, NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory
  • Chapter 9: Forests

    Lead Authors
  • Grant Domke, USDA Forest Service
  • Christopher A. Williams, Clark University
  • Contributing Authors
  • Richard Birdsey, Woods Hole Research Center
  • John Coulston, USDA Forest Service
  • Adrien Finzi, Boston University
  • Christopher Gough, Virginia Commonwealth University
  • Bob Haight, USDA Forest Service
  • Jeff Hicke, University of Idaho
  • Maria Janowiak, USDA Forest Service
  • Ben de Jong, El Colegio de la Frontera Sur
  • Werner A. Kurz, Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service
  • Melissa Lucash, Portland State University
  • Stephen Ogle, Colorado State University
  • Marcela Olguín-Álvarez, Consultant, SilvaCarbon Program
  • Yude Pan, USDA Forest Service
  • Margaret Skutsch, Centro de Investigaciones en Geografía Ambiental
  • Carolyn Smyth, Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service
  • Chris Swanston, USDA Forest Service
  • Pamela Templer, Boston University
  • Dave Wear, USDA Forest Service
  • Christopher W. Woodall, USDA Forest Service
  • Science Lead
  • Richard Birdsey, Woods Hole Research Center
  • Review Editor
  • Marc G. Kramer, Washington State University, Vancouver
  • Federal Liaisons
  • John Schade, National Science Foundation
  • Anne Marsh, USDA Forest Service
  • Karina V. R. Schäfer (former), National Science Foundation
  • Chapter 10: Grasslands

    Lead Author
  • Elise Pendall, Western Sydney University
  • Contributing Authors
  • Dominique Bachelet, Oregon State University
  • Richard T. Conant, Colorado State University
  • Bassil El Masri, Murray State University
  • Lawrence B. Flanagan, University of Lethbridge
  • Alan K. Knapp, Colorado State University
  • Jinxun Liu, U.S. Geological Survey
  • Shuguang Liu, Central South University of Forestry and Technology
  • Sean M. Schaeffer, University of Tennessee
  • Science Lead
  • Sasha C. Reed, U.S. Geological Survey
  • Review Editor
  • Rachel Melnick, USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture
  • Federal Liaisons
  • Nancy Cavallaro, USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture
  • Anne Marsh, USDA Forest Service
  • Chapter 11: Arctic and Boreal Carbon

    Lead Authors
  • Edward A. G. Schuur, Northern Arizona University
  • A. David McGuire, U.S. Geological Survey and University of Alaska, Fairbanks
  • Vladimir Romanovsky, University of Alaska, Fairbanks
  • Contributing Authors
  • Christina Schädel, Northern Arizona University
  • Michelle Mack, Northern Arizona University
  • Science Lead
  • Sasha C. Reed, U.S. Geological Survey
  • Review Editor
  • Marc G. Kramer, Washington State University, Vancouver
  • Federal Liaisons
  • Zhiliang Zhu, U.S. Geological Survey
  • Eric Kasischke (former), NASA
  • Jared DeForest (former), DOE Office of Science
  • Chapter 12: Soils

    Lead Authors
  • Kate Lajtha, Oregon State University
  • Vanessa L. Bailey, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
  • Contributing Authors
  • Karis McFarlane, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
  • Keith Paustian, Colorado State University
  • Dominique Bachelet, Oregon State University
  • Rose Abramoff, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
  • Denis Angers, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada
  • Sharon A. Billings, University of Kansas
  • Darrel Cerkowniak, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada
  • Yannis G. Dialynas, University of Cyprus (formerly at Georgia Institute of Technology)
  • Adrien Finzi, Boston University
  • Nancy H. F. French, Michigan Technological University
  • Serita Frey, University of New Hampshire
  • Noel P. Gurwick, U.S. Agency for International Development
  • Jennifer Harden, U.S. Geological Survey and Stanford University
  • Jane M. F. Johnson, USDA Agricultural Research Service
  • Kristofer Johnson, USDA Forest Service
  • Johannes Lehmann, Cornell University
  • Shuguang Liu, Central South University of Forestry and Technology
  • Brian McConkey, Agriculture and AgriFood Canada
  • Umakant Mishra, Argonne National Laboratory
  • Scott Ollinger, University of New Hampshire
  • David Paré, Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service
  • Fernando Paz Pellat, Colegio de Postgraduados Montecillo
  • Daniel deB. Richter, Duke University
  • Sean M. Schaeffer, University of Tennessee
  • Joshua Schimel, University of California, Santa Barbara
  • Cindy Shaw, Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service
  • Jim Tang, Marine Biological Laboratory
  • Katherine Todd-Brown, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
  • Carl Trettin, USDA Forest Service
  • Mark Waldrop, U.S. Geological Survey
  • Thea Whitman, University of Wisconsin, Madison
  • Kimberly Wickland, U.S. Geological Survey
  • Science Lead
  • Melanie A. Mayes, Oak Ridge National Laboratory
  • Review Editor
  • Francesca Cotrufo, Colorado State University
  • Federal Liaison
  • Nancy Cavallaro, USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture
  • Chapter 13: Terrestrial Wetlands

    Lead Authors
  • Randall Kolka, USDA Forest Service
  • Carl Trettin, USDA Forest Service
  • Contributing Authors
  • Wenwu Tang, University of North Carolina, Charlotte
  • Ken Krauss, U.S. Geological Survey
  • Sheel Bansal, U.S. Geological Survey
  • Judith Drexler, U.S. Geological Survey
  • Kimberly Wickland, U.S. Geological Survey
  • Rodney Chimner, Michigan Technological University
  • Diana Hogan, U.S. Geological Survey
  • Emily J. Pindilli, U.S. Geological Survey
  • Brian Benscoter, Florida Atlantic University
  • Brian Tangen, U.S. Geological Survey
  • Evan Kane, Michigan Technological University
  • Scott Bridgham, University of Oregon
  • Curtis Richardson, Duke University
  • Science Lead
  • Raymond G. Najjar, The Pennsylvania State University
  • Review Editor
  • Gil Bohrer, Ohio State University
  • Federal Liaisons
  • Zhiliang Zhu, U.S. Geological Survey
  • Eric Kasischke (former), NASA
  • Chapter 14: Inland Waters

    Lead Author
  • David Butman, University of Washington
  • Contributing Authors
  • Rob Striegl, U.S. Geological Survey
  • Sarah Stackpoole, U.S. Geological Survey
  • Paul del Giorgio, Université du Québec à Montréal
  • Yves Prairie, Université du Québec à Montréal
  • Darren Pilcher, Joint Institute for the Study of the Atmosphere and Ocean, University of Washington and NOAA
  • Peter Raymond, Yale University
  • Fernando Paz Pellat, Colegio de Postgraduados Montecillo
  • Javier Alcocer, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México
  • Science Lead
  • Raymond G. Najjar, The Pennsylvania State University
  • Review Editor
  • Nicholas Ward, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
  • Federal Liaisons
  • Nancy Cavallaro, USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture
  • Zhiliang Zhu, U.S. Geological Survey
  • Chapter 15: Tidal Wetlands and Estuaries

    Lead Authors
  • Lisamarie Windham-Myers, U.S. Geological Survey
  • Wei-Jun Cai, University of Delaware
  • Contributing Authors
  • Simone R. Alin, NOAA Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory
  • Andreas Andersson, Scripps Institution of Oceanography
  • Joseph Crosswell, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization
  • Kenneth H. Dunton, University of Texas, Austin
  • Jose Martin Hernandez-Ayon, Autonomous University of Baja California
  • Maria Herrmann, The Pennsylvania State University
  • Audra L. Hinson, Texas A&M University
  • Charles S. Hopkinson, University of Georgia
  • Jennifer Howard, Conservation International
  • Xinping Hu, Texas A&M University, Corpus Christi
  • Sara H. Knox, U.S. Geological Survey
  • Kevin Kroeger, U.S. Geological Survey
  • David Lagomasino, University of Maryland
  • Patrick Megonigal, Smithsonian Environmental Research Center
  • Raymond G. Najjar, The Pennsylvania State University
  • May-Linn Paulsen, Scripps Institution of Oceanography
  • Dorothy Peteet, NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies
  • Emily Pidgeon, Conservation International
  • Karina V. R. Schäfer, Rutgers University
  • Maria Tzortziou, City University of New York
  • Zhaohui Aleck Wang, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
  • Elizabeth B. Watson, Drexel University
  • Expert Reviewer
  • Camille Stagg, U.S. Geological Survey
  • Science Lead
  • Raymond G. Najjar, The Pennsylvania State University
  • Review Editor
  • Marjorie Friederichs, Virginia Institute of Marine Science
  • Federal Liaisons
  • Zhiliang Zhu, U.S. Geological Survey
  • , Authors wish to thank their respective funding agencies, including the U.S. Geological Survey LandCarbon Program, NASA Carbon Monitoring System Program (NNH14AY671 for Windham-Myers), and the National Science Foundation Division of Ocean Sciences (OCE 1238212, 1637630, and 1237140 for Hopkinson).
  • Chapter 16: Coastal Ocean and Continental Shelves

    Lead Author
  • Katja Fennel, Dalhousie University
  • Contributing Authors
  • Simone R. Alin, NOAA Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory
  • Leticia Barbero, NOAA Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory
  • Wiley Evans, Hakai Institute
  • Timothée Bourgeois, Dalhousie University
  • Sarah R. Cooley, Ocean Conservancy
  • John Dunne, NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory
  • Richard A. Feely, NOAA Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory
  • Jose Martin Hernandez-Ayon, Autonomous University of Baja California
  • Chuanmin Hu, University of South Florida
  • Xinping Hu, Texas A&M University, Corpus Christi
  • Steven E. Lohrenz, University of Massachusetts, Dartmouth
  • Frank Muller-Karger, University of South Florida
  • Raymond G. Najjar, The Pennsylvania State University
  • Lisa Robbins, University of South Florida
  • Joellen Russell, University of Arizona
  • Elizabeth H. Shadwick, College of William & Mary
  • Samantha Siedlecki, University of Connecticut
  • Nadja Steiner, Fisheries and Oceans Canada
  • Daniela Turk, Dalhousie University
  • Penny Vlahos, University of Connecticut
  • Zhaohui Aleck Wang, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
  • Science Lead
  • Raymond G. Najjar, The Pennsylvania State University
  • Review Editor
  • Marjorie Friederichs, Virginia Institute of Marine Science
  • Federal Liaisons
  • Erica H. Ombres, NOAA Ocean Acidification Program
  • Laura Lorenzoni, NASA Earth Science Division
  • Chapter 17: Biogeochemical Effects of Rising Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide

    Lead Authors
  • Sarah R. Cooley, Ocean Conservancy
  • David J. P. Moore, University of Arizona
  • Contributing Authors
  • Simone R. Alin, NOAA Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory
  • David Butman, University of Washington
  • David W. Clow, U.S. Geological Survey
  • Nancy H. F. French, Michigan Technological University
  • Richard A. Feely, NOAA Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory
  • Zackary I. Johnson, Duke University
  • Gretchen Keppel-Aleks, University of Michigan
  • Steven E. Lohrenz, University of Massachusetts, Dartmouth
  • Ilissa B. Ocko, Environmental Defense Fund
  • Elizabeth H. Shadwick, College of William & Mary
  • Adrienne J. Sutton, NOAA Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory
  • Christopher S. Potter, NASA Ames Research Center
  • Yuki Takatsuka, Florida State University
  • Anthony P. Walker, Oak Ridge National Laboratory
  • Rita M. S. Yu, University of Washington
  • Science Lead
  • Melanie A. Mayes, Oak Ridge National Laboratory
  • Review Editor
  • Adam J. Terando, U.S. Geological Survey
  • Federal Liaisons
  • Erica H. Ombres, NOAA Ocean Acidification Program
  • Kathy Tedesco, NOAA Ocean Observing and Monitoring Division and University Corporation for Atmospheric Research
  • Chapter 18: Carbon Cycle Science in Support of Decision Making

    Lead Author
  • Tristram O. West, DOE Office of Science
  • Contributing Authors
  • Noel P. Gurwick, U.S. Agency for International Development
  • Molly E. Brown, University of Maryland
  • Riley Duren, NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory
  • Siân Mooney, Arizona State University
  • Keith Paustian, Colorado State University
  • Emily McGlynn, University of California, Davis
  • Elizabeth L. Malone, Independent Researcher
  • Adam Rosenblatt, University of North Florida
  • Nathan Hultman, University of Maryland
  • Ilissa B. Ocko, Environmental Defense Fund
  • Science Lead
  • Paty Romero-Lankao, National Center for Atmospheric Research (currently at National Renewable Energy Laboratory)
  • Review Editor
  • Emily J. Pindilli, U.S. Geological Survey
  • Federal Liaisons
  • Nancy Cavallaro, USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture
  • Gyami Shrestha, U.S. Carbon Cycle Science Program and University Corporation for Atmospheric Research
  • Chapter 19: Future of the North American Carbon Cycle

    Lead Authors
  • Deborah N. Huntzinger, Northern Arizona University
  • Abhishek Chatterjee, Universities Space Research Association and NASA Global Modeling and Assimilation Office
  • Contributing Authors
  • David J. P. Moore, University of Arizona
  • Sara Ohrel, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
  • Tristram O. West, DOE Office of Science
  • Benjamin Poulter, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center
  • Anthony P. Walker, Oak Ridge National Laboratory
  • John Dunne, NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory
  • Sarah R. Cooley, Ocean Conservancy
  • Anna M. Michalak, Carnegie Institution for Science and Stanford University
  • Maria Tzortziou, City University of New York
  • Lori Bruhwiler, NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory
  • Adam Rosenblatt, University of North Florida
  • Yiqi Luo, Northern Arizona University
  • Peter J. Marcotullio, Hunter College, City University of New York
  • Joellen Russell, University of Arizona
  • Science Lead
  • Melanie A. Mayes, Oak Ridge National Laboratory
  • Review Editor
  • Tara Hudiburg, University of Idaho
  • Federal Liaisons
  • Elisabeth Larson, North American Carbon Program and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Science Systems and Applications Inc.
  • John Schade, National Science Foundation
  • Karina V. R. Schäfer, National Science Foundation
  • Chapter appendix-a: Report Development Process

    Lead Author
  • Gyami Shrestha, U.S. Carbon Cycle Science Program and University Corporation for Atmospheric Research
  • Chapter appendix-b: Information Quality in the Assessment

    Lead Author
  • Gyami Shrestha, U.S. Carbon Cycle Science Program and University Corporation for Atmospheric Research
  • Chapter appendix-c: Selected Carbon Cycle Research Observations and Measurement Programs

    Chapter appendix-d: Carbon Measurement Approaches and Accounting Frameworks

    Lead Authors
  • Richard Birdsey, Woods Hole Research Center
  • Noel P. Gurwick, U.S. Agency for International Development
  • Kevin Robert Gurney, Northern Arizona University
  • Gyami Shrestha, U.S. Carbon Cycle Science Program and University Corporation for Atmospheric Research
  • Melanie A. Mayes, Oak Ridge National Laboratory
  • Raymond G. Najjar, The Pennsylvania State University
  • Sasha C. Reed, U.S. Geological Survey
  • Paty Romero-Lankao, National Center for Atmospheric Research (currently at National Renewable Energy Laboratory)
  • Chapter appendix-e: Fossil Fuel Emissions Estimates for North America

    Lead Authors
  • Andrew R. Jacobson, University of Colorado, Boulder, and NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory
  • John B. Miller, NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory
  • Kevin Robert Gurney, Northern Arizona University
  • Chapter appendix-f: Acronyms, Abbreviations, and Units

    Chapter appendix-g: Glossary

Technical Support Unit at Oak Ridge National Laboratory
  • Holly Huan
    Lead, SOCCR2 ORNL Production and Editorial Team
  • Kris Christen
  • Marilyn Langston
  • Sheryl Martin
  • Stacey McCray
  • Marissa Mills
  • Judy Wyrick
  • Brett Hopwood
  • Betty Mansfield
    Group Leader
Technical Support Unit at NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information
  • David R. Easterling
    Technical Support Unit Director, NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information
  • Sarah M. Champion
    Information Quality Liaison, NC State University
  • Katharine M. Johnson
    Web Developer, General Dynamics IT
  • Angel Li
    Web Developer, NC State University
  • Thomas K. Maycock
    TSU Liaison, NC State University
  • Brooke C. Stewart
    TSU Liaison, NC State University
  • Andrew Thrasher
    Software Engineer, NC State University
U.S. Global Change Research Program
  • Bradley Akamine
    Chief Digital Information Officer, ICF
  • David J. Dokken
    Senior Program Officer, ICF
  • Amrutha Elamparuthy
    Data Manager, Straughan Environmental Inc.
  • Reid Sherman
    Global Change Information System Lead, Straughan Environmental Inc.
  • Kathryn Tipton
    Software Engineer, ICF
  • Reuben Aniekwu
    Data Assistant, ICF
Metadata Support
  • Bergit Uhran
    U.S. Geological Survey
  • U.S. Global Change Research Program National Coordination Office Staff
    David Dokken, Julie Morris, Amrutha Elamparuthy
  • SOCCR2 Website 1.0 Developer Team
    David Strong, Bergit Uhran, and U.S. Geological Survey
  • Alison Crimmins, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and Meg Walsh, USDA Office of the Chief Economist
    for guidance during the initiation of the assessment process
  • Jennifer Bennett-Mintz, Laurel Gutenberg, Tess Carter, Anna Cram, Adam Stein, and Matt Stephens
    for assistance during development
  • Christopher DeRolph and Adam Malin, Oak Ridge National Laboratory
    for graphics support
  • Former SOCCR2 Federal Steering Committee Members and Liaisons:
    Karina V. R. Schäfer (formerly National Science Foundation), Jared DeForest (formerly U.S. Department of Energy), Eric Kasischke (formerly NASA), Carolyn Olson (formerly USDA Office of the Chief Economist), Ben DeAngelo (formerly U.S. Global Change Research Program), and Glynis Lough (formerly National Climate Assessment, U.S. Global Change Research Program)
  • Canadian Science Liaisons:
    Catherine Ste-Marie, Geological Survey of Canada; Werner A. Kurz, Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service
  • Mexican Science Liaison:
    Fernando Paz Pellat, Colegio de Postgraduados Montecillo
  • NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information Technical Support Team, SOCCR2 Website 2.0, and Resource Site Help:
    David R. Easterling, Sarah Champion, Katharine M. Johnson, Angel Li, Thomas K. Maycock, and Brooke C. Stewart
  • Expert Reviewers:
    Sam Baldwin, DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy; Sarah Burch, Waterloo University; John Robinson, University of Toronto; Benjamin Sovacool, University of Sussex and Aarhaus University; Camille Stagg, U.S. Geological Survey; Hal Wilhite, University of Oslo; and Nicole Woolsey Biggart, University of California, Davis
  • Global Carbon Project
  • ICF International, Inc.
  • University Corporation for Atmospheric Research, Cooperative Programs for the Advancement of Earth System Science (UCAR CPAESS)

U.S. Department of Agriculture National Institute of Food and Agriculture

  • Cover: North American carbon cycling illustration, courtesy Ron Oden, University of Nevada, Reno.
  • Preface: NASA
  • Chapter 1: iStockphoto.com
  • Chapter 2: Alamy Stock Photo
  • Chapter 3: iStockphoto.com
  • Chapter 4: iStockphoto.com
  • Chapter 5: iStockphoto.com
  • Chapter 6: iStockphoto.com
  • Chapter 7: Flathead River on the Flathead Reservation of the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes, courtesy Maureen I. McCarthy.
  • Chapter 8: Keeling Building of the Mauna Loa Observatory in Hawai‘i, courtesy Forrest M. Mims III.
  • Chapter 9: Aspen trees in northwestern Ontario, courtesy Grant M. Domke.
  • Chapter 10: iStockphoto.com
  • Chapter 11: Abrupt thaw in Noatak National Preserve, Alaska, courtesy Edward A. G. Schuur.
  • Chapter 12: Carbon-enriched soil surface horizon, courtesy Vanessa L. Bailey.
  • Chapter 13: Prairie pothole wetland in South Dakota, courtesy U.S. Geological Survey.
  • Chapter 14: Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge in Alaska, courtesy Mark Dornblaser.
  • Chapter 15: iStockphoto.com
  • Chapter 16: iStockphoto.com
  • Chapter 17: DOE Free-Air CO2 Enrichment experiment in Wisconsin, courtesy Oak Ridge National Laboratory.
  • Chapter 18: iStockphoto.com
  • Chapter 19: iStockphoto.com
  • Appendix A: iStockphoto.com
  • Appendix B: Keeling Building of the Mauna Loa Observatory in Hawai‘i, courtesy Forrest M. Mims III.
  • Appendix C: iStockphoto.com
  • Appendix D: iStockphoto.com
  • Appendix E: iStockphoto.com
  • Appendix F: NASA
  • Appendix G: iStockphoto.com
  • Search: NASA
  • Downloads: NASA
  • Credits: NASA

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