Selected Carbon Cycle Research Observations and Measurement Programs
Atmospheric Chemistry Research Group School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, United Kingdom
Continuous measurements of CO2 at three sites in the United Kingdom (2012 to 2015).
Center for Atmospheric and Oceanic Studies, Tohoku University, Japan
Continuous measurements of CO2 at Syowa Station, Antarctica (1984 to present).
Centre for Environmental and Climate Research, Lund University, Sweden
Continuous measurements of CO2 at Hyltemossa and Norunda, Sweden (2015 to present).
Centre for Isotope Research, University of Groningen, Netherlands
Continuous measurements of CO2 at Station Lutjewad, Netherlands (2006 to present).
Climate and Environmental Physics, Physics Institute, University of Bern, Switzerland
Continuous measurements of CO2 at Beromünster, Switzerland (2012 to present), and Jungfraujoch, Switzerland (2004 to present).
Division of Geological and Planetary Science, California Institute of Technology, United States
Continuous measurements of CO2 at Pasadena, California (2007 to 2013), and Palos Verdes Peninsula, California (2010 to 2013).
Earth Networks, United States
Continuous measurements of CO2 at 28 U.S. sites out of a planned 50, with data planned to be commercially available.
Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands
Continuous measurements of CO2 at Cesar, Cabauw, Netherlands (1992 to present).
Environment and Climate Change Canada
Continuous sampling of CO2, CO, CH4, and other species conducted at 22 tower sites across Canada (www.canada.ca/en/environment-climate-change.html; beginning 1988–2014 to present).
European Space Agency
SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY), an imaging spectrometer, performing global measurements of trace gases in the troposphere and stratosphere (www.sciamachy.org; March 2002 to April 2012).
Finnish Meteorological Institute
Continuous measurements of CO2 at PallasSammaltunturi, Finland (2000 to present).
Harvard University, NOAA, and National Center for Atmospheric Research, United States
Continuous and flask sampling by the HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO) project on five campaign flights (2009 to 2011).
Harvard University, United States
CO2 Budget and Regional Airborne Study (COBRA) aircraft measurements of regional to continental fluxes of CO and CO2 over North America (2003 to 2004).
Hohenpeissenberg Meteorological Observatory, Germany
Continuous measurements of CO2 at Gartow, Hohenpeissenberg, and Lindenberg, Germany (2015 to present).
Hungarian Meteorological Service
Continuous measurements of CO2 at Hegyhatsal, Hungary (1994 to present).
Institut de Ciéncia i Tecnologia Ambientals, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Spain
Continuous measurements of CO2 at seven sites in Spain (2013 to present) and flask measurements at one site in Spain (2008 to 2015).
Institut für Umweltphysik, University of Heidelberg, Germany
Continuous measurements of CO2 at Heidelberg, Germany (1996 to 2015).
Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares, Brazil
Flask measurements at Arembepe, Brazil (2006 to 2010), and Farol de Mãe Luiza Lighthouse, Brazil (2010 to 2015). Aircraft flask samples at four sites in Brazil (2010 to 2012).
Izana Atmospheric Research Center, Meteorological State Agency of Spain
Continuous measurements of CO2 at Izana, Tenerife, Canary Islands (1984 to present).
Japan Meteorological Agency
Aircraft flask measurements (2011 to 2015) and surface continuous measurements of CO2 at three stations in Japan (1987 to present).
Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l’Environnement, France
Continuous measurements of CO2 at Amsterdam Island (2012 to present); Mace Head, Ireland (2010 to present); and Puy-de-Dôme, France (2011 to present).
Langley Research Center, NASA, United States
Continuous measurements of CO2 via Atmospheric Vertical Observations of CO2 in the Earth’s Troposphere (AVOCET) from various campaigns, including TRACE-P, SEAC4RS, INTEX-B, INTEX-NA, DISCOVER-AQ, DC3, and ARCTAS (2001 to present).
National Center for Atmospheric Research, United States
Quasi-continuous measurements of CO2 at five mountaintop locations in the United States: Hidden Peak, Utah; Niwot Ridge, Colorado; Roof Butte, Arizona; Fraser Experimental Forest, Colorado; and Storm Peak Laboratory, Steamboat Springs, Colorado (beginning 2005–2007 to present).
National Institute for Environmental Studies, Japan
Flask and in situ continuous measurements of CO2 aboard commercial aircraft as part of the Comprehensive Observation Network for Trace gases by an Airliner (CONTRAIL) project (1993 to present).
National Institute for Environmental Studies, Japan
Observations of infrared light reflected and emitted from the Earth’s surface and the atmosphere by Japan’s Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT). Column abundances of CO2 and CH4 are calculated from the observational data. GOSAT flies at an altitude of approximately 666 km and completes one revolution in about 100 minutes. The satellite returns to the same point in space in three days. Its onboard observation instrument is the Thermal And Near-infrared Sensor for carbon Observation (TANSO), which consists of two subunits: the Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) and the Cloud and Aerosol Imager (CAI).
National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, New Zealand
Continuous measurements of CO2 at Baring Head Station, New Zealand (1972 to present).
National Science Foundation, United States
Stratosphere-Troposphere Analyses of Regional Transport (START08) aircraft measurement campaign departing from Colorado (April–June 2008). Co-sponsors include the National Center for Atmospheric Research, University of Colorado, Harvard University, University of Miami, Princeton University, NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory, Texas A&M University, and The Pennsylvania State University.
NOAA Chemical Sciences Division, United States
Campaign-mode continuous measurements of CO2 by a number of projects including the Aerosol, Radiation, and Cloud Processes affecting Arctic Climate (ARCPAC, 2008), California Nexus (CalNex, 2010), Southeast Nexus (SENex, 2013), Shale Oil and Natural Gas Nexus (SONGNex, 2015), and the Texas Air Quality Study (TexAQS, 2006).
Norwegian Institute for Air Research
Continuous measurements of CO2 at Birkenes Observatory, Norway (2015 to present); Ny-Ålesund and Svalbard, Norway; and Sweden (2015 to present).
Oceans & Atmosphere Flagship – GASLAB, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO), Australia
Flask sampling for multiple trace gas species at 15 sites worldwide, including three in North America: Alert, Canada; Mauna Loa, Hawaiʻi; and Estevan Point, British Columbia (early 1990s to present).
Oregon State University, United States
Continuous measurements of CO2 at seven sites in Oregon (most beginning in 2007 to present).
The Pennsylvania State University and NOAA Global Monitoring Division, United States
Continuous monitoring of CO2, CH4, and CO by the Indianapolis Flux Experiment (INFLUX) at seven tower sites around Indianapolis, Indiana (2011 to 2012).
The Pennsylvania State University, United States
Measurements of CO2, CH4, and CO at 18 various U.S. tower and surface sites conducted intermittently for periods of up to 3 years (2007 to present).
Ricerca sul Sistema Energetico, Italy
Continuous measurements of CO2 at Plateau Rosa Station, Italy (2008 to present).
Schauinsland Station, Umweltbundesamt (UBA, German Environment Agency)
Continuous measurements of CO2 at Schauinsland, Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany (2014 to present).
Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO), United States
Flask sampling by SIO at 16 locations worldwide including seven in North America: Alert, Nunavut, Canada; Baja California Sur, Mexico; Barrow, Alaska; Cold Bay, Alaska; Cape Kumukahi, Hawaiʻi; La Jolla, California; and Mauna Loa, Hawaiʻi (beginning 1957–1996, most continuing to present).
South African Weather Service
Continuous measurements of CO2 at Cape Point, South Africa (1993 to present).
Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology
Continuous measurements of CO2 at Jungfraujoch, Switzerland (2009 to present).
University of East Anglia, United Kingdom
Continuous measurements of CO2 at Weybourne, United Kingdom (2007 to present).
University of Helsinki, Finland
Continuous measurements of CO2 at Hyytiala, Finland (2012 to present).
University of Minnesota, United States
Continuous measurements of CO2 at Rosemount Research and Outreach Center, Minnesota (2007 to present).
University of Science and Technology, PolandContinuous measurements of CO2 at Kasprowy Wierch, High Tatra, Poland (1996 to present).
Utah Atmospheric Trace Gas & Air Quality Lab, University of Utah, United StatesContinuous measurements of CO2 at six sites in Utah (available from 2001 to present).
1 This appendix is a partial listing; some important observations may not be presented. Some content is adapted from Our Changing Planet: The U.S. Global Change Research Program for Fiscal Year 2016 and includes information from GLOBALVIEW-CO2 (www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/ccgg/globalview/co2/co2_intro.html).↩
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