Lead Author:
Tristram O. West, DOE Office of Science
Contributing Authors:
Noel P. Gurwick, U.S. Agency for International Development
Molly E. Brown, University of Maryland
Riley Duren, NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory
Siân Mooney, Arizona State University
Keith Paustian, Colorado State University
Emily McGlynn, University of California, Davis
Elizabeth L. Malone, Independent Researcher
Adam Rosenblatt, University of North Florida
Nathan Hultman, University of Maryland
Ilissa B. Ocko, Environmental Defense Fund
Science Lead:
Paty Romero-Lankao, National Center for Atmospheric Research (currently at National Renewable Energy Laboratory)
Review Editor:
Emily J. Pindilli, U.S. Geological Survey
Federal Liaisons:
Nancy Cavallaro, USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture
Gyami Shrestha, U.S. Carbon Cycle Science Program and University Corporation for Atmospheric Research

Carbon Cycle Science in Support of Decision Making


Adler, P. R., S. J. Del Grosso, and W. J. Parton, 2007: Life-cycle assessment of net greenhouse-gas flux for bioenergy cropping systems. Ecological Applications, 17(3), 675-691, doi: 10.1890/05-2018.

Beach, R. H., Y. Cai, A. Thomson, X. Zhang, R. Jones, B. A. McCarl, A. Crimmins, J. Martinich, J. Cole, S. Ohrel, B. DeAngelo, J. McFarland, K. Strzepek, and B. Boehlert, 2015: Climate change impacts on US agriculture and forestry: Benefits of global climate stabilization. Environmental Research Letters, 10(9), 095004, doi: 10.1088/1748-9326/10/9/095004.

Benjaafar, S., Y. Li, and M. Daskin, 2013: Carbon footprint and the management of supply chains: Insights from simple models. IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering, 10(1), doi: 10.1109/TASE.2012.2203304.

Birdsey, R., G. Angeles-Perez, W. A. Kurz, A. Lister, M. Olguin, Y. Pan, C. Wayson, B. Wilson, and K. Johnson, 2013: Approaches to monitoring changes in carbon stocks for REDD+. Carbon Management, 4, 519–537, doi: 10.4155/cmt.13.49.

BLM, 2016: Proposed Resource Management Plan/Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Resource Management Plans for Western Oregon. U.S. Department of Interior, Bureau of Land Management. [URL]

Brandt, A. R., G. A. Heath, E. A. Kort, F. O’Sullivan, G. Petron, S. M. Jordaan, P. Tans, J. Wilcox, A. M. Gopstein, D. Arent, S. Wofsy, N. J. Brown, R. Bradley, G. D. Stucky, D. Eardley, and R. Harriss, 2014: Energy and environment. Methane leaks from North American natural gas systems. Science, 343(6172), 733-735, doi: 10.1126/science.1247045.

Brown, M. E., and V. M. Escobar, 2013: Professional review of the pre-launch smap mission applications user community. IEEE Journal of Special Topics and Applied Remote Sensing, 7(1), 277-283, doi: 10.1109/JSTARS.2013.2261473.

Brown, M. E., M. Ihli, O. Hendrick, S. Delgado-Arias, V. M. Escobar, and P. Griffith, 2016: Social network and content analysis of the North American carbon program as a scientific community of practice. Social Networks, 44, 226-237, doi: 10.1016/j.socnet.2015.10.002.

Buchholz, T., S. Prisley, G. Marland, C. Canham, and N. Sampson, 2014: Uncertainty in projecting GHG emissions from bioenergy. Nature Climate Change, 4(12), 1045-1047, doi: 10.1038/nclimate2418.

Burke, M., W. M. Dais, and N. S. Diffenbaugh, 2018: Large potential reduction in economic damages under UN mitigation targets. Nature, 557, 549-553, doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0071-9.

Campbell, J. L., M. E. Harmon, and S. R. Mitchell, 2012: Can fuel-reduction treatments really increase forest carbon storage in the Western U.S. by reducing future fire emissions? Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 10(2), 83-90, doi: 10.1890/110057.

CARB, 2018: Compliance Offset Program. California Air Resources Board. [URL]

Carbon Neutral Cities Alliance, 2018: [URL]

Cartus, O., J. Kellndorfer, W. Walker, C. Franco, J. Bishop, L. Santos, and J. M. M. Fuentes, 2014: A national, detailed map of forest aboveground carbon stocks in Mexico. Remote Sensing, 6(6), 5559-5588, doi: 10.3390/rs6065559.

Cash, D. W., W. N. Adger, F. Berkes, P. Garden, L. Lebel, P. Olsson, L. Pritchard, and O. Young, 2006: Scale and cross-scale dynamics: Governance and information in a multilevel world. Ecology and Society, 11(2), 1-8.

CCSP, 2007: First State of the Carbon Cycle Report (SOCCR): The North American Carbon Budget and Implications for the Global Carbon Cycle. A Report by the U.S. Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on Global Change Research. [A. W. King, L. Dilling, G. P. Zimmerman, D. M. Fairman, R. A. Houghton, G. Marland, A. Z. Rose, and T. J. Wilbanks (eds.)]. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Climatic Data Center, Asheville, NC, USA, 242 pp.

Chapin, F. S., G. M. Woodwell, J. T. Randerson, E. B. Rastetter, G. M. Lovett, D. D. Baldocchi, D. A. Clark, M. E. Harmon, D. S. Schimel, R. Valentini, C. Wirth, J. D. Aber, J. J. Cole, M. L. Goulden, J. W. Harden, M. Heimann, R. W. Howarth, P. A. Matson, A. D. McGuire, J. M. Melillo, H. A. Mooney, J. C. Neff, R. A. Houghton, M. L. Pace, M. G. Ryan, S. W. Running, O. E. Sala, W. H. Schlesinger, and E. D. Schulze, 2006: Reconciling carbon-cycle concepts, terminology, and methods. Ecosystems, 9(7), 1041-1050, doi: 10.1007/s10021-005-0105-7.

Chaturvedi, V., S. Kim, S. J. Smith, L. Clarke, Y. Y. Zhou, P. Kyle, and P. Patel, 2013: Model evaluation and hindcasting: An experiment with an integrated assessment model. Energy, 61, 479-490, doi: 10.1016/j.energy.2013.08.061.

Cherubini, F., G. P. Peters, T. Berntsen, A. H. Stromman, and E. Hertwich, 2011: CO2 emissions from biomass combustion for bioenergy: Atmospheric decay and contribution to global warming. Global Change Biology Bioenergy, 3(5), 413-426, doi: 10.1111/j.1757-1707.2011.01102.x.

Christopher, M., 2011: Logistics and Supply Chain Management, 4th Ed. Prentice Hall. London. 276 pp.

CISCO, 2017: Corporate Social Responsibility Report. CISCO. [URL]

Clark, W. C., T. P. Tomich, M. van Noordwijk, D. Guston, D. Catacutan, N. M. Dickson, and E. McNie, 2016: Boundary work for sustainable development: Natural resource management at the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 113(17), 4615-4622, doi: 10.1073/pnas.0900231108.

Climate Action Reserve, 2018: Protocols. [URL]

Consolidated Edison, 2016: Sustainability Report. [URL]

de Vries, F. T., E. Thebault, M. Liiri, K. Birkhofer, M. A. Tsiafouli, L. Bjornlund, H. Bracht Jorgensen, M. V. Brady, S. Christensen, P. C. de Ruiter, T. d’Hertefeldt, J. Frouz, K. Hedlund, L. Hemerik, W. H. Hol, S. Hotes, S. R. Mortimer, H. Setala, S. P. Sgardelis, K. Uteseny, W. H. van der Putten, V. Wolters, and R. D. Bardgett, 2013: Soil food web properties explain ecosystem services across European land use systems. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 110(35), 14296-14301, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1305198110.

Del Grosso, S., D. Ojima, W. Parton, A. Mosier, G. Peterson, and D. Schimel, 2002: Simulated effects of dryland cropping intensification on soil organic matter and greenhouse gas exchanges using the DAYCENT ecosystem model. Environmental Pollution, 116, S75-S83, doi: 10.1016/s0269-7491(01)00260-3.

Deschamps Ramírez, P., and A. M. Larson, 2017: The Politics of REDD+ MRV in Mexico: The Interplay of the National and Subnational Levels. CGIAR Program on Forests, Trees, and Agroforestry. [URL]

Dilling, L., 2007: Towards science in support of decision making: Characterizing the supply of carbon cycle science. Environmental Science and Policy, 10(1), 48-61, doi: 10.1016/j.envsci.2006.10.008.

Dilling, L., and M. C. Lemos, 2011: Creating usable science: Opportunities and constraints for climate knowledge use and their implications for science policy. Global Environment Change, 21(2), 680-689.

Drewniak, B., J. Song, J. Prell, V. R. Kotamarthi, and R. Jacob, 2013: Modeling agriculture in the community land model. Geoscientific Model Development, 6(2), 495-515, doi: 10.5194/gmd-6-495-2013.

Elizondo, A., V. Pérez-Cirera, A. Strapasson, J. C. Fernández, and D. Cruz-Cano, 2017: Mexico’s low carbon futures: An integrated assessment for energy planning and climate change mitigation by 2050. Futures 93, 14-26, doi: 10.1016/j.futures.2017.08.003.

Eve, M., D. Pape, M. Flugge, R. Steele, D. Man, M. Riley-Gilbert, and S. Biggar, 2014: Quantifying Greenhouse Gas Fluxes in Agriculture and Forestry: Methods for Entity-Scale Inventory. USDA Office of the Chief Economist, Climate Change Program Office. USDA Technical Bulletin 1939. [URL]

Federal Register, 2016a: Oil and natural gas sector: Emissions standards for new, reconstructed, and modified sources. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 40 CFR part 60. Federal Register 81(107), 35824-35942. [URL]

Federal Register, 2016b: Waste prevention, production subject to royalties, and resource conservation. Bureau of Land Management 43 CFR parts 3100, 3160, and 3170. Federal Register 81(25): 6616-6686. [URL]

Frank, E. D., J. Han, I. Palou-Rivera, A. Elgowainy, and M. Q. Wang, 2011: Life-cycle Analysis of Algal Lipid Fuels with the GREET Model. Center for Transportation Research, Argonne National Laboratory. ANL/ESD/11-5. [URL]

Frankenberg, C., A. K. Thorpe, D. R. Thompson, G. Hulley, E. A. Kort, N. Vance, J. Borchardt, T. Krings, K. Gerilowski, C. Sweeney, S. Conley, B. D. Bue, A. D. Aubrey, S. Hook, and R. O. Green, 2016: Airborne methane remote measurements reveal heavy-tail flux distribution in four corners region. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 113(35), 9734-9739, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1605617113.

Fricko, O., P. Hvlik, J. Rogelj, Z. Klimont, M. Gusti, N. Johnson, P. Kolp, M. Strubegger, H. Vali, M. Amann, T. Ermolieva, N. Forsell, M. Herroro, C. Heyes, G. Kindermann, V. Krey, D. L. McCollum, M. Obersteiner, S. Pachauri, S. Rao, E. Schmid, W. Schoepp, and K. Riahi, 2017: The marker quantification of the Shared Socioeconomic Pathway 2: A middle-of-the-road scenario for the 21st century. Global Environmental Change, 42, 251-267.

Galik, C. S., and R. C. Abt, 2012: The effect of assessment scale and metric selection on the greenhouse gas benefits of woody biomass. Biomass and Bioenergy, 44, 1-7, doi: 10.1016/j.biombioe.2012.04.009.

Georgetown Climate Center, 2017: Lessons in Regional Resilience: The Southeast Florida Regional Climate Change Compact. [URL]

Gonzalez, G., 2014: VCS Sees REDD in California Carbon. Ecosystem Marketplace. [URL]

Grassi, G., J. House, F. Dentener, S. Federici, M. den Elzen, and J. Penman, 2017: The key role of forests in meeting climate targets requires science for credible mitigation. Nature Climate Change, 7 220-228, doi: 10.1038/NCLIMATE3227.

Griscom, B. W., J. Adams, P. W. Ellis, R. A. Housghton, G. Lomax, D. A. Miteva, W. H. Schlesinger, D. Shock, J. V. Siikamaki, P. Smith, P. Woodbury, C. Zganjar, A. Blackman, J. Campri, R. T. Conant, C. Delgado, P. Elias, T. Gopalakrishna, M. R. Hamsik, M. Herrero, J. Kiesecker, E. Landis, L. Laestadius, S. M. Leavitt, S. Minnemeyer, S. Polasky, P. Potapov, F. E. Putz, J. Sanderman, M. Silvius, E. Wollenberg, and J. Fargione, 2017: Natural Climate Solutions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 114, 11645-11650, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1710465114.

Gurney, K. R., D. L. Mendoza, Y. Y. Zhou, M. L. Fischer, C. C. Miller, S. Geethakumar, and S. D. Du Can, 2009: High resolution fossil fuel combustion CO2 emission fluxes for the United States. Environmental Science and Technology, 43(14), 5535-5541, doi: 10.1021/es900806c.

Gurney, K. R., I. Razlivanov, Y. Song, Y. Zhou, B. Benes, and M. Abdul-Massih, 2012: Quantification of fossil fuel CO2 emissions on the building/street scale for a large U.S. city. Environmental Science and Technology, 46(21), 12194-12202, doi: 10.1021/es3011282.

Haya, B., A. Strong, E. Grubert, and D. Cullenward, 2016: Carbon offsets in California: Science in the policy development process. In: Communicating Climate-Change and Natural Hazard Risk and Cultivating Resilience, [J. L. Drake, Y. Y. Kontar, J. C. Eichelberger, S. T. Rupp, and K. M. Taylor (eds.)]. Springer, pp. 241-254.

Hayes, D. J., D. P. Turner, G. Stinson, A. D. McGuire, Y. Wei, T. O. West, L. S. Heath, B. Jong, B. G. McConkey, R. A. Birdsey, W. A. Kurz, A. R. Jacobson, D. N. Huntzinger, Y. Pan, W. M. Post, and R. B. Cook, 2012: Reconciling estimates of the contemporary North American carbon balance among terrestrial biosphere models, atmospheric inversions, and a new approach for estimating net ecosystem exchange from inventory-based data. Global Change Biology, 18(4), 1282-1299, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2011.02627.x.

Hayes, D., and D. Turner, 2012: The need for “apples-to-apples” comparisons of carbon dioxide source and sink estimates. Eos, Transactions American Geophysical Union, 93(41), 404-405, doi: 10.1029/2012eo410007.

Hillier, J., C. Walter, D. Malin, T. Garcia-Suarez, L. Mila-i-Canals, and P. Smith, 2011: A farm-focused calculator for emissions from crop and livestock production. Environmental Modelling and Software, 26(9), 1070-1078, doi: 10.1016/j.envsoft.2011.03.014.

Hsu, C.-W., T.-C. Juo, S.-H. Chen, and A. H. Hu, 2013: Using DEMATEL to develop a carbon management model of supplier selection in green supply chain management. Journal of Cleaner Production, 56, 164-172, doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2011.09.012.

Huang, W., A. Swatantran, K. Johnson, L. Duncanson, H. Tang, J. O’Neil Dunne, G. Hurtt, and R. Dubayah, 2015: Local discrepancies in continental scale biomass maps: A case study over forested and non-forested landscapes in Maryland, USA. Carbon Balance and Management, 10, 19, doi: 10.1186/s13021-015-0030-9.

Huntzinger, D. N., W. M. Post, Y. Wei, A. M. Michalak, T. O. West, A. R. Jacobson, I. T. Baker, J. M. Chen, K. J. Davis, D. J. Hayes, F. M. Hoffman, A. K. Jain, S. Liu, A. D. McGuire, R. P. Neilson, C. Potter, B. Poulter, D. Price, B. M. Raczka, H. Q. Tian, P. Thornton, E. Tomelleri, N. Viovy, J. Xiao, W. Yuan, N. Zeng, M. Zhao, and R. Cook, 2012: North American Carbon Program regional interim synthesis: Terrestrial biospheric model intercomparison. Ecological Modelling, 232, 144-157, doi: 10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2012.02.004.

Hurteau, M., and M. North, 2009: Fuel treatment effects on tree-based forest carbon storage and emissions under modeled wildfire scenarios. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 7(8), 409-414, doi: 10.1890/080049.

Hurtt, G. C., L. P. Chini, S. Frolking, R. A. Betts, J. Feddema, G. Fischer, J. P. Fisk, K. Hibbard, R. A. Houghton, A. Janetos, C. D. Jones, G. Kindermann, T. Kinoshita, K. K. Goldewijk, K. Riahi, E. Shevliakova, S. Smith, E. Stehfest, A. Thomson, P. Thornton, D. P. van Vuuren, and Y. P. Wang, 2011: Harmonization of land-use scenarios for the period 1500-2100: 600 years of global gridded annual land-use transitions, wood harvest, and resulting secondary lands. Climatic Change, 109(1-2), 117-161, doi: 10.1007/s10584-011-0153-2.

IPCC, 1996: 1996 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. [URL]

IPCC, 2003: Good Practice Guidance for Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry. [J. Penman, M. Gytarsky, T. Hiraishi, T. Krug, D. Kruger, R. Pipatti, L. Buendia, K. Miwa, T. Ngara, K. Tanabe, and F. Wagner (eds.)]. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Institute for Global Environmental Strategies, Hayama, Japan.

IPCC, 2006: IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. Prepared by the National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme, Institute for Global Environmental Strategies. [URL]

Iyer, G. C., J. A. Edmonds, A. A. Fawcett, N. E. Hultman, J. Alsalam, G. R. Asrar, K. V. Calvin, L. E. Clarke, J. Creason, M. Jeong, 2015: The contribution of Paris to limit global warming to 2°C. Environmental Research Letters, 10, 125002, doi: 10.1088/1748-9326/10/12/125002.

Jacob, D. J., A. J. Turner, J. D. Maasakkers, J. Sheng, K. Sun, X. Liu, K. Chance, I. Aben, J. McKeever, and C. Frankenberg, 2016: Satellite observations of atmospheric methane and their value for quantifying methane emissions. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions, 1-41, doi: 10.5194/acp-2016-555.

Johnson, E., 2009: Goodbye to carbon neutral: Getting biomass footprints right. Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 29(3), 165-168, doi: 10.1016/j.eiar.2008.11.002.

Khanna, M., and C. L. Crago, 2012: Measuring indirect land use change with biofuels: Implications for policy. Annual Review of Resource Economics, 4(1), 161-184, doi: 10.1146/annurev-resource-110811-114523.

Kirchhoff, C. J., M. C. Lemos, and S. Dessai, 2013: Actionable knowledge for environmental decision making: Broadening the usability of climate science. Annual Review of Environment and Resources, 38, 393-414, doi: 10.1146/annurev-environ-022112-112828.

Köhl, M., R. Lasco, M. Cifuentes, Ö. Jonsson, K. T. Korhonen, P. Mundhenk, J. de Jeses Navar, and G. Stinson, 2015: Changes in forest production, biomass and carbon: Results from the 2015 UN FAO Global Forest Resource Assessment. Forest Ecology and Management, 352, 21-34, doi: 10.1016/j.foreco.2015.05.036.

Kort, E. A., C. Frankenberg, K. R. Costigan, R. Lindenmaier, M. K. Dubey, and D. Wunch, 2014: Four corners: The largest U.S. methane anomaly viewed from space. Geophysical Research Letters, 41(19), 6898-6903, doi: 10.1002/2014gl061503.

Kraucunas, I., L. Clarke, J. Dirks, J. Hathaway, M. Hejazi, K. Hibbard, M. Huang, C. Jin, M. Kintner-Meyer, K. K. van Dam, R. Leung, H.-Y. Li, R. Moss, M. Peterson, J. Rice, M. Scott, A. Thomson, N. Voisin, and T. West, 2014: Investigating the nexus of climate, energy, water, and land at decision-relevant scales: The Platform for Regional Integrated Modeling and Analysis (PRIMA). Climatic Change, 129(3-4), 573-588, doi: 10.1007/s10584-014-1064-9.

Kyle, P., P. Luckow, K. V. Calvin, B. Emanuel, M. Nathan, and Y. Zhou, 2011: GCAM 3.0. Agriculture and Land Use: Data Sources and Methods. PNNL-21025. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA.

Lauvaux, T., A. E. Schuh, M. Bocquet, L. Wu, S. Richardson, N. Miles, and K. J. Davis, 2012: Network design for mesoscale inversions of CO2 sources and sinks. Tellus B: Chemical and Physical Meteorology, 64, doi: 10.3402/tellusb.v64i0.17980.

Le Page, Y., T. O. West, R. Link, and P. Patel, 2016: Downscaling land use and land cover from the Global Change Assessment Model for coupling with Earth system models. Geoscientific Model Development, 9(9), 3055-3069, doi: 10.5194/gmd-9-3055-2016.

Le Quéré, C., R. Moriarty, R. M. Andrew, J. G. Canadell, S. Sitch, J. I. Korsbakken, P. Friedlingstein, G. P. Peters, R. J. Andres, T. A. Boden, R. A. Houghton, J. I. House, R. F. Keeling, P. Tans, A. Arneth, D. C. E. Bakker, L. Barbero, L. Bopp, J. Chang, F. Chevallier, L. P. Chini, P. Ciais, M. Fader, R. A. Feely, T. Gkritzalis, I. Harris, J. Hauck, T. Ilyina, A. K. Jain, E. Kato, V. Kitidis, K. Klein Goldewijk, C. Koven, P. Landschützer, S. K. Lauvset, N. Lefèvre, A. Lenton, I. D. Lima, N. Metzl, F. Millero, D. R. Munro, A. Murata, J. E. M. S. Nabel, S. Nakaoka, Y. Nojiri, K. O’Brien, A. Olsen, T. Ono, F. F. Pérez, B. Pfeil, D. Pierrot, B. Poulter, G. Rehder, C. Rödenbeck, S. Saito, U. Schuster, J. Schwinger, R. Séférian, T. Steinhoff, B. D. Stocker, A. J. Sutton, T. Takahashi, B. Tilbrook, I. T. van der Laan-Luijkx, G. R. van der Werf, S. van Heuven, D. Vandemark, N. Viovy, A. Wiltshire, S. Zaehle, and N. Zeng, 2015: Global carbon budget 2015. Earth System Science Data, 7(2), 349-396, doi: 10.5194/essd-7-349-2015.

Lemos, M. C., and B. J. Morehouse, 2005: The co-production of science and policy in integrated climate assessments. Global Environmental Change—Human and Policy Dimensions, 15(1), 57-68, doi: 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2004.09.004.

Li, C., 2007: Quantifying greenhouse gas emissions from soils: Scientific basis and modeling approach. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 53(4), 344-352, doi: 10.1111/j.1747-0765.2007.00133.x.

Lippke, B., E. Oneil, R. Harrison, K. Skog, L. Gustavsson, and R. Sathre, 2011: Life cycle impacts of forest management and wood utilization on carbon mitigation: Knowns and unknowns. Carbon Management, 2(3), 303-333, doi: 10.4155/Cmt.11.24.

Lippke, B., R. Gustafson, R. Venditti, P. Steele, T. A. Volk, E. Oneil, L. Johnson, M. E. Puettmann, and K. Skog, 2012: Comparing life-cycle carbon and energy impacts for biofuel, wood product, and forest management alternatives. Forest Products Journal, 62(4), 247-257, doi: 10.13073/fpj-d-12-00017.1.

McGreavy, B., L. Lindenfeld, K. Hutchins Bieluch, L. Silka, J. Leahy, and B. Zoellick, 2015: Communication and sustainability science teams as complex systems. Ecology and Society, 20(1), doi: 10.5751/es-06644-200102.

McKinley, G., N. Urban, V. Bennington, D. Pilcher, and C. McDonald, 2011: Preliminary carbon budgets for the Laurentian Great Lakes. Ocean Carbon and Biogeochemistry News, 4(2), Spring/Summer 2001. [URL]

Michalak, A. M., R. Jackson, G. Marland, C. Sabine, and Carbon Cycle Science Working Group, 2011: A U.S. Carbon Cycle Science Plan. University Corporation for Atmospheric Research. [URL]

Miller, S. M., S. C. Wofsy, A. M. Michalak, E. A. Kort, A. E. Andrews, S. C. Biraud, E. J. Dlugokencky, J. Eluszkiewicz, M. L. Fischer, G. Janssens-Maenhout, B. R. Miller, J. B. Miller, S. A. Montzka, T. Nehrkorn, and C. Sweeney, 2013: Anthropogenic emissions of methane in the United States. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1314392110.

Miner, R. A., R. C. Abt, J. L. Bowyer, M. A. Buford, R. W. Malmsheimer, J. O’Laughlin, E. E. Oneil, R. A. Sedjo, and K. E. Skog, 2014: Forest carbon acconting considerations in US bioenergy policy. Journal of Forestry, 112(6), 591-606, doi: 10.5849/jof.14-009.

Mitchell, S. R., M. E. Harmon, and K. E. B. O’Connell, 2012: Carbon debt and carbon sequestration parity in forest bioenergy production. Global Change Biology Bioenergy, 4(6), 818-827, doi: 10.1111/j.1757-1707.2012.01173.x.

Mitchell, S. R., M. E. Harmon, and K. E. O’Connell, 2009: Forest fuel reduction alters fire severity and long-term carbon storage in three Pacific Northwest ecosystems. Ecological Applications, 19(3), 643-655, doi: 10.1890/08-0501.

Mogles, N., I. Walker, A. P. Ramallo-González, J. H. Lee, S. Natarajan, J. Padget, E. Gabe-Thomas, T. Lovett, G. Ren, S. Hyniewska, E. O’Neill, R. Hourizi, and D. Coley, 2017: How smart do smart meters need to be? Building and Environment, 125(15), 439-450, doi: 10.1016/j.buildenv.2017.09.008.

Mooney, H. A., A. Duraiappah, and A. Larigauderie, 2013: Evolution of natural and social science interactions in global change research programs. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 110 (Suppl 1), 3665-3672, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1107484110.

Moser, S., 2009: Making a difference on the ground: The challenge of demonstrating the effectiveness of decision support. Climatic Change, 95(1-2), 11-21, doi: 10.1007/s10584-008-9539-1.

Mu, J. E., A. M. Wein, and B. A. McCarl, 2015: Land use and management change under climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies: A U.S. case study. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 20(7), 1041-1054, doi: 10.1007/s11027-013-9514-7.

Odum, H. T., 1994: Ecological and General Systems — An Introduction to Systems Ecology. University Press of Colorado, Niwot, CO, 659 pp.

Ogle, S., K. Davis, A. Andrews, K. Gurney, T. O. West, R. B. Cooke, T. Parkin, J. Morisette, S. Verma, and S. Wofsy, 2006: Science Plan: Mid-Continent Intensive Campaign of the North American Carbon Program. NACP. [URL]

Olander, L. P., E. Wollenberg, F. N. Tubiello, and M. Herold, 2014: Synthesis and Review: Advancing agricultural greenhouse gas quantification. Environmental Research Letters, 9(7), doi: 10.1088/1748-9326/9/7/075003

Patarasuk, R., K. R. Gurney, D. O’Keeffe, Y. Song, J. H. Huang, P. Rao, M. Buchert, J. C. Lin, D. Mendoza, and J. R. Ehleringer, 2016: Urban high-resolution fossil fuel CO2 emissions quantification and exploration of emission drivers for potential policy applications. Urban Ecosystems, 19(3), 1013-1039, doi: 10.1007/s11252-016-0553-1.

Paustian, K., M. Easter, K. Brown, A. Chambers, M. Eve, A. Huber, E. Marx, M. Layer, M. Stermer, B. Sutton, A. Swan, C. Toureene, S. Verlayudhan, and S. Williams, 2018: Field- and farm-scale assessment of soil greenhouse gas mitigation using COMET-Farm. In: Precision Conservation: Geospatial Techniques for Agricultural and Natural Resources Conservation, Agronomy Monograph 59 [J. A. Delgado, G. F. Sassenrath, and T. Mueller (eds.)]. ASA/CSSA/SSSA, Madison, WI, USA, pp. 341-359, doi: 10.2134/agronmonogr59.2013.0033.

Paustian, K., J. Lehmann, S. Ogle, D. Reay, G. P. Robertson, and P. Smith, 2016: Climate-smart soils. Nature, 532(7597), 49-57, doi: 10.1038/nature17174.

Paustian, L., B. Babcock, J. L. Hatfield, R. Lal, B. A. McCarl, S. McLaughlin, A. Mosier, C. Rice, G. P. Roberton, N. Rosenberg, and C. Rosenzweig, 2001: Agricultural mitigation of greenhouse gases: Science and policy options. First National Conference on Carbon Sequestration.

Rockstrom, J., W. Steffen, K. Noone, Asa Persson, F. S. Chapin III, E. F. Lambin, T. M. Lenton, M. Scheffer, C. Folke, H. Joachim Schellnhuber, B. Nykvist, C. A. de Wit, T. Hughes, S. van der Leeuw, H. Rodhe, S. Sorlin, P. K. Snyder, R. Costanza, U. Svedin, M. Falkenmark, L. Karlberg, R. W. Corell, V. J. Fabry, J. Hansen, B. Walker, D. Liverman, K. Richardson, P. Crutzen, and J. A. Foley, 2009: A safe operating space of humanity. Nature, 461, 472-475.

Rogelj, J., A. Popp, K. V. Calvin, G. Luderer, J. Emmerling, D. Gernaat, S. Fujimori, J. Srefler, T. Hasegawa, G. Marangoni, V. Krey, E. Kriegler, K. Riahi, D. P. van Vurren, J. Doelman, L. Drouet, J. Edmonds, O. Fricko, M. Harmsen, P. Havlik, F. Humpenoder, E. Stehfest, and M. Tavoni, 2018: Scenarios towards limiting global mean temperature increase below 1.5°C. Nature Climate Change, doi: 10.1038/s41558-018-0091-3.

Ross, L., K. Arrow, R. Cialdini, N. Diamond-Smith, J. Diamond, J. Dunne, M. Feldman, R. Horn, D. Kennedy, C. Murphy, D. Pirages, K. Smith, R. York, and P. Ehrlick, 2016: The climate change challenge and barriers to the exercise of foresight intelligence. BioScience, 66, 363-370, doi: 10.1093/biosci/biw025.

Sanderman, J., T. Hengl, and G. J. Fiske, 2017: Soil carbon debt of 12,000 years of human land use. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 114, 9575-95, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1706103114.

Schlamadinger, B., and G. Marland, 1996: The role of forest and bioenergy strategies in the global carbon cycle. Biomass and Bioenergy, 10(5-6), 275-300, doi: 10.1016/0961-9534(95)00113-1.

Schuh, A. E., T. Lauvaux, T. O. West, A. S. Denning, K. J. Davis, N. Miles, S. Richardson, M. Uliasz, E. Lokupitiya, D. Cooley, A. Andrews, and S. Ogle, 2013: Evaluating atmospheric CO2 inversions at multiple scales over a highly inventoried agricultural landscape. Global Change Biology, 19(5), 1424-1439, doi: 10.1111/gcb.12141.

Scott, C.A., 1977: Modifying socially-conscious behavior: The foot-in-the-door technique. Journal of Consumer Research, 4(3), 156-164, doi: 10.1086/208691.

Skog, K. E., D. C. McKinley, R. A. Birdsey, S. J. Hines, C. W. Woodall, E. D. Reinhardt, and J. M. Vose, 2014: Managing carbon. In: Climate Change and United States Forests. [D. L. Peterson, J. M. Vose, and T. Patel-Weynand (eds.)]. Springer, pp. 151-182.

Sleeter, B. M., T. L. Sohl, M. A. Bouchard, R. R. Reker, C. E. Soulard, W. Acevedo, G. E. Griffith, R. R. Sleeter, R. F. Auch, K. L. Sayler, S. Prisley, and Z. L. Zhu, 2012: Scenarios of land use and land cover change in the conterminous United States: Utilizing the special report on emission scenarios at ecoregional scales. Global Environmental Change-Human and Policy Dimensions, 22(4), 896-914, doi: 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2012.03.008.

SPLC, 2018: Supplier Sustainability Ratings. [URL]

Thompson, D. R., A. K. Thorpe, C. Frankenberg, R. O. Green, R. Duren, L. Guanter, A. Hollstein, E. Middleton, L. Ong, and S. Ungar, 2016: Space-based remote imaging spectroscopy of the Aliso Canyon CH4 superemitter. Geophysical Research Letters, 43(12), 6571-6578, doi: 10.1002/2016gl069079.

Tian, X., B. Sohngen, J. Baker, S. Ohrel, and A. A. Fawcett, 2018: Will U.S. forests continue to be a carbon sink? Land Economics 94(1), 97-113, doi: 10.3368/le.94.1.97.

Tilman, D., R. Socolow, J. A. Foley, J. Hill, E. Larson, L. Lynd, S. Pacala, J. Reilly, T. Searchinger, C. Somerville, and R. Williams, 2009: Energy. Beneficial biofuels—the food, energy, and environment trilemma. Science, 325(5938), 270-271, doi: 10.1126/science.1177970.

Tseng, S. and S. Hung, 2014: A strategic decision-making model considering the social costs of carbon dioxide emissions for sustainable supply chain management. Journal of Environmental Management, 133(15), 315-322, doi: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2013.11.023.

Turner, A. J., D. J. Jacob, J. Benmergui, S. C. Wofsy, J. D. Maasakkers, A. Butz, O. Hasekamp, and S. C. Biraud, 2016: A large increase in U.S. methane emissions over the past decade inferred from satellite data and surface observations. Geophysical Research Letters, 43(5), 2218-2224, doi: 10.1002/2016gl067987.

U.S. Department of State, 2016: Second Biennial Report of the United States of America Under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. [URL]

U.S. EPA, 2014: Framework for Assessing Biogenic CO2 Emissions from Stationary Sources. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Atmospheric Programs, Climate Change Division. [URL]

U.S. EPA, 2016: Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2014. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. EPA 430-R-16-002. [URL]

UCS, 2009: Climate 2030: A National Blueprint for a Clean Energy Economy. Union of Concerned Scientists, Washington, DC.

University of Maryland, 2016: Maryland Carbon Monitoring System. [URL]

USAID, 2018. Clearn Energy Emissions Reduction Tool. [URL]

USDA, 2014: Quantifying Greenhouse Gas Fluxes in Agriculture and Forestry: Methods for Entity-Scale Inventory. Technical Bulletin 1939. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Office of the Chief Economist, Washington, DC.

USDA, 2015: The U.S. Forest Carbon Accounting Framework: Stocks and Stock Change, 1990-2016. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. General Technical Report NRS-154.

Verburg, P. H., J. van de Steeg, A. Veldkamp, and L. Willemen, 2009: From land cover change to land function dynamics: A major challenge to improve land characterization. Journal of Environmental Management, 90(3), 1327-1335, doi: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2008.08.005.

Walmart, 2017: Walmart Launches Project Gigaton to Reduce Emissions in Company’s Supply Chain. [https://news.walmart.com/2017/04/19/walmart-launches-project-gigaton-to-reduce-emissions-in-companys-supply-chain">URL]

Weaver, C. P., S. Mooney, D. Allen, N. Beller-Simms, T. Fish, A. E. Grambsch, W. Hohenstein, K. Jacobs, M. A. Kenney, M. A. Lane, L. Langner, E. Larson, D. L. McGinnis, R. H. Moss, L. G. Nichols, C. Nierenberg, E. A. Seyller, P. C. Stern, and R. Winthrop, 2014: From global change science to action with social sciences. Nature Climate Change, 4(8), 656-659, doi: 10.1038/nclimate2319.

West, T. O., and G. Marland, 2002: A synthesis of carbon sequestration, carbon emissions, and net carbon flux in agriculture: Comparing tillage practices in the United States. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 91(1-3), 217-232, doi: 10.1016/S0167-8809(01)00233-X.

West, T. O., M. E. Brown, R. M. Duren, S. M. Ogle, and R. H. Moss, 2013: Definition, capabilities and components of a terrestrial carbon monitoring system. Carbon Management, 4(4), 413-422, doi: 10.4155/Cmt.13.36.

West, T. O., V. Bandaru, C. C. Brandt, A. E. Schuh, and S. M. Ogle, 2011: Regional uptake and release of crop carbon in the United States. Biogeosciences, 8(8), 2037-2046, doi: 10.5194/bg-8-2037-2011.

West, T. O., Y. Le Page, M. Y. Huang, J. Wolf, and A. M. Thomson, 2014: Downscaling global land cover projections from an integrated assessment model for use in regional analyses: Results and evaluation for the U.S. From 2005 to 2095. Environmental Research Letters, 9(6), doi: 10.1088/1748-9326/9/6/064004.

Weyant, J., 2017: Some contributions of integrated assessment models of global climate change. Review of Environmental Economics and Policy, 11, 115–137, doi: 10.1093/reep/rew018.

White House, 2016: United States Mid-Century Strategy for Deep Decarbonization, 110 pp. [URL]

WHRC, 2014: Aboveground Forest Carbon Stocks in Mexico. Woods Hole Research Center. [URL]

Wise, M., K. Calvin, A. Thomson, L. Clarke, B. Bond-Lamberty, R. Sands, S. J. Smith, A. Janetos, and J. Edmonds, 2009: Implications of limiting CO2 concentrations for land use and energy. Science, 324(5931), 1183-1186, doi: 10.1126/science.1168475.

Wise, M., K. Calvin, P. Kyle, P. Luckow, and J. Edmonds, 2014: Economic and physical modeling of land use in GCAM 3.0 and an application to agricultural productivity, land, and terrestrial carbon. Climate Change Economics, 5, 1450003, doi: 10.1142/S2010007814500031.

Woodall, C. W., B. F. Walters, J. W. Coulston, A. W. D’Amato, G. M. Domke, M. B. Russell, and P. A. Sowers, 2015: Monitoring network confirms land use change is a substantial component of the forest carbon sink in the Eastern United States. Scientific Reports, 5, 17028, doi: 10.1038/srep17028.

WWF and CDP, 2013: The 3% Solution: Driving Profits Through Carbon Reductions. World Wildlife Fund and Carbon Disclosure Project. [URL]

Zavala-Araiza, D., D. R. Lyon, R. A. Alvarez, K. J. Davis, R. Harriss, S. C. Herndon, A. Karion, E. A. Kort, B. K. Lamb, X. Lan, A. J. Marchese, S. W. Pacala, A. L. Robinson, P. B. Shepson, C. Sweeney, R. Talbot, A. Townsend-Small, T. I. Yacovitch, D. J. Zimmerle, and S. P. Hamburg, 2015: Reconciling divergent estimates of oil and gas methane emissions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 112(51), 15597-15602, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1522126112.

Zell, E., A. K. Huff, A. T. Carpenter, and L.A. Friedl, 2012: A User-Driven Approach to Determining Critical Earth Observation Priorities for Societal Benefit. IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, 5(6), 1594-1602, doi: 10.1109/JSTARS.2012.2199467.

Zimmerle, D. J., L. L. Williams, T. L. Vaughn, C. Quinn, R. Subramanian, G. P. Duggan, B. Willson, J. D. Opsomer, A. J. Marchese, D. M. Martinez, and A. L. Robinson, 2015: Methane emissions from the natural gas transmission and storage system in the United States. Environmental Science and Technology, 49(15), 9374-9383, doi: 10.1021/acs.est.5b01669.

  1. Mitigation of methane (CH4) emissions—particularly point sources from the energy, waste, and some agricultural sectors—has strong near-term tractability because it involves detecting and repairing local fugitive emissions rather than economy-wide shifts in energy and transportation infrastructure associated with fossil fuel carbon dioxide (CO2) mitigation. Monitoring anthropogenic CH4 fluxes is generally more tractable (with existing technology) than monitoring CO2 fluxes, since the latter includes large, confounding fluxes from the biosphere. However, area sources of CH4 such as wetlands and some agricultural fluxes (e.g., rice and enteric livestock emissions) continue to present a challenge.

  2. Carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e): Amount of CO2 that would produce the same effect on the radiative balance of Earth’s climate system as another greenhouse gas, such as methane (CH4) or nitrous oxide (N2O), on a 100-year timescale. For comparison to units of carbon, each kg CO2e is equivalent to 0.273 kg C (0.273 = 1/3.67). See Box P.2, p. 12, in the Preface for details.

See Full Chapter & References