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1: The Role of Carbon in the Earth System

2: The Natural Carbon Cycle

3: Perturbations to the Global Carbon Cycle

4: The Future Carbon Cycle: Emissions, Sinks, and Carbon Cycle–Climate Feedbacks

5: The Carbon Cycle and Climate Mitigation

TA: Supporting Evidence

References


1: Carbon Cycling in Grasslands

2: Current Understanding of Grassland Productivity and Carbon Stocks

3: Indicators, Trends, and Feedbacks

4: Societal Drivers, Impacts, and Carbon Management

5: Synthesis, Knowledge Gaps, and Outlook

TA: Supporting Evidence

References


1: Introduction

2: Historical Context of Vegetation and Soil Carbon Pools

3: Current Understanding of Carbon Pools and Fluxes

4: Indicators, Trends, and Feedbacks

5: Societal Drivers, Impacts, and Carbon Management

6: Summary and Outlook

TA: Supporting Evidence

References


1: Introduction

2: Carbon Cycling Processes in Soils

3: Modeling SOC Dynamics

4: North American and Regional Context

5: Societal Drivers, Impacts, and Carbon Management

6: Synthesis and Outlook

TA: Supporting Evidence

References


1: Introduction

2: Current and Historical Context

3: Current Understanding of Wetland Stocks and Fluxes

4: Wetland Management, Restoration, and Creation

5: Terrestrial Wetland Trends and Feedbacks

6: Global, North American, and Regional Context

7: Synthesis, Knowledge Gaps, and Outlook

8: Appendix 13A: Terrestrial Wetland Area and Carbon Pools

9: Appendix 13B: Terrestrial Wetland–Atmosphere Exchange of Carbon Dioxide and Methane

TA: Supporting Evidence

References


1: Introduction

2: Historical Context

3: Current Understanding of Carbon Fluxes and Stocks

4: Current and Future Trends

5: Global, North American, and U.S. Context

6: Societal Drivers, Impacts, and Carbon Management

7: Synthesis, Knowledge Gaps, and Outlook

TA: Supporting Evidence

References


1: Introduction

2: Historical Context, Overview of Carbon Fluxes and Stocks in Tidal Wetlands and Estuaries

3: Global, North American, and Regional Context

4: Carbon Fluxes and Stocks in Tidal Wetlands and Estuaries of North America

5: Indicators, Trends, and Feedbacks

6: Societal Drivers, Impacts, and Carbon Management

7: Synthesis, Knowledge Gaps, and Outlook

8: Appendix 15A: Supplemental Data Tables

TA: Supporting Evidence

References


1: Introduction

2: Current Understanding of Carbon Fluxes and Stocks

3: Coastal Carbon Fluxes Around North America

4: Climate Trends and Feedbacks

5: Conclusions

TA: Supporting Evidence

References


1: Introduction

2: Atmospheric CO<sub>2</sub> in Prior Geological Ages

3: Aquatic Consequences of Rising CO<sub>2</sub>

4: Terrestrial Consequences of Rising CO<sub>2</sub>

5: Carbon Cycle Feedbacks of Rising CO<sub>2</sub>

6: Consequences for Ecosystem Services

7: Synthesis, Knowledge Gaps, and Outlook

TA: Supporting Evidence

References


1: Introduction

2: User Demand for Carbon Cycle Science

3: Carbon Cycle Science Used for Decision Making

4: Technical Capabilities and Challenges for Supporting Decision Making

5: Pathways for Science to Support Decision Making

TA: Supporting Evidence

References


1: Introduction

2: Overview of the Global Carbon Cycle

3: Major Drivers of Carbon Cycle Changes and Their Future Projections

4: Future Land Carbon Cycle

5: Future Ocean and Coastal Carbon Cycle

6: Future Freshwater Carbon Cycle

7: Synthesis, Knowledge Gaps, and Key Research Needs

TA: Supporting Evidence

References


1: Introduction

2: Historical Context

3: Current Understanding of Carbon Stocks and Fluxes

4: Trends in North American Carbon Cycling

5: Regional Context

6: Societal Drivers, Impacts, and Carbon Management

7: Synthesis, Knowledge Gaps, and Outlook

TA: Supporting Evidence

References


1: Introduction

2: Historical Context

3: North American Energy System

4: Indicators, Trends, and Feedbacks

5: Global, North American, and Regional Context

6: Societal Drivers and Impacts

7: Carbon Management Decisions

8: Future Outlook

9: Synthesis, Knowledge Gaps, and Key Challenges

TA: Supporting Evidence

References


1: Introduction

2: Current Understanding of Carbon Fluxes and Stocks

3: Societal Drivers

4: Trends and Feedbacks

5: Global, North American, and Regional Context

6: Carbon Management Decisions

7: Synthesis, Knowledge Gaps, and Outlook

TA: Supporting Evidence

References


1: Introduction and Historical Context

2: Societal Drivers and Carbon Management Decisions

3: Current State of the Agricultural Carbon Cycle

4: Indicators, Trends, and Feedbacks

5: Agriculture’s Impact on Atmospheric CO<sub>2</sub>

6: Global Context

7: Synthesis, Knowledge Gaps, and Outlook

TA: Supporting Evidence

References


1: Introduction: The Social Embeddedness of Carbon

2: Energy Behavior and Embedded Carbon

3: Governance and Carbon

4: Carbon Scenarios Embedded in the Future

5: Vulnerability and Embedded Carbon

6: Socioecological Systems and Embedded Carbon

7: Sociotechnical Transitions and Embedded Carbon

8: Carbon Connections in Social Networks

9: Social Practices and Carbon Configurations

10: The Roles of Communication and Stakeholder Involvement

11: Opportunities to Reduce Carbon Emissions

12: Conclusions

TA: Supporting Evidence

References


1: Introduction

2: Historical Context and North American Perspective

3: Current Understanding of Carbon Stocks and Fluxes

4: Indicators, Trends, and Feedbacks

5: Societal Drivers, Impacts, and Carbon Management

6: Synthesis, Knowledge Gaps, and Outlook

7: Appendix 7A

TA: Supporting Evidence

References


1: Introduction

2: Historical Context

3: Current Understanding of Carbon Fluxes and Stocks

4: Indicators, Trends, and Feedbacks

5: Societal Drivers, Impacts, and Carbon Management

6: Synthesis, Knowledge Gaps, and Outlook

TA: Supporting Evidence

References


1: Introduction

2: Historical Context

3: Current Understanding of Carbon Fluxes and Stocks

4: Attribution and Trends

5: Global Perspective

6: Societal Drivers and Impacts

7: Carbon Management

8: Synthesis, Knowledge Gaps, and Outlook

TA: Supporting Evidence

References


1: Introduction

2: A.1 U.S. Global Change Research Program

3: A.2 Subcommittee on Global Change Research

4: A.3 Carbon Cycle Interagency Working Group

5: A.4 SOCCR2 Federal Steering Committee

6: A.5 SOCCR2 Chapter Federal Liaisons

7: A.6 Science Leads

8: A.7 Chapter Teams

9: A.8 Contributing Authors

10: A.9 Creating SOCCR2

References


1: Introduction

B.1 Identification of Literature Sources

B.2 Compliance with the Information Quality Act

B.3 Gray Literature

References


1: Aquatic Observations

2: Terrestial Observations

3: Atmospheric Observationss

4: Additional Atmospheric Observations (Listed by Institution)<sup>2</sup>


1: D.1 Approaches to Measuring Carbon Stocks and Flows

2: D.2 Methods for Estimating Carbon Stocks and Fluxes

4: D.3 Frameworks for Carbon Accounting

References


1: Introduction

2: Emissions Estimates Considered

3: Time Series of North American Emissions, 2004 to 2013

References


1: Acronyms

2: Abbreviations and Units


1: Glossary


1: Executive Summary

2: What Is the Carbon Cycle, and Why Is It Important?

3: How Is the Global Carbon Cycle Changing?

4: Carbon Sources, Sinks, and Stocks in North America

5: Effects of Carbon Cycle Changes on North Americans and Their Environments

6: A Systems Approach to Linking the Carbon Cycle and Society

7: Projections of the Future Carbon Cycle, Potential Impacts, and Uncertainties

8: Carbon Management and Mitigation

9: Conclusion and Progress Since SOCCR1

References


1: Highlights


1: About This Report

2: Guide to the Report

3: Interagency Context of U.S. Carbon Cycle Science

References