Chapter 16, Key Finding 3

The increasing concentration of CO2 in coastal and open-ocean waters leads to ocean acidification. Corrosive conditions in the subsurface occur regularly in Arctic coastal waters, which are naturally prone to low pH, and North Pacific coastal waters, where upwelling of deep, carbon-rich waters has intensified and, in combination with the uptake of anthropogenic carbon, leads to low seawater pH and aragonite saturation states in spring, summer, and early fall (very high confidence, very likely).