Chapter 12, Key Finding 3
Soil carbon stocks are sensitive to agricultural and forestry practices and loss of carbon-rich soils such as wetlands. Soils in North America have lost, on average, 20% to 75% of their original top soil carbon (0 to 30 cm) with historical conversion to agriculture, with a mean estimate for Canada of 24% ± 6%. Current agricultural management practices can increase soil organic matter in many systems through reduced summer fallow, cover cropping, effective fertilization to increase plant production, and reduced tillage. Forest soil carbon loss with harvest is small under standard management practices and mostly reversible at the century scale. Afforestation of land in agriculture, industry, or wild grasslands in the United States and Canadian border provinces could increase SOC by 21% ± 9% (high confidence).